208 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION proper adaptation to the changing requirements of later times. The consequence was that by the Eighteenth Century the Jesuit schools and colleges, though numbering many eminent scientists among their scholars, were largely out of touch with the spirit of an age dominated by scientific thought. In this respect, indeed, they were no worse than the other schools which had been the outcome of the Reformation. But combined with the prejudices which had sprung up against the Jesuits on other grounds, this led to a general reaction against their educational work, which cul- minated in 1773 in the suppression of the order and the closing of their schools for forty years. BIBLIOGRAPHY. JESUITS : A. P, FARRELL. The Jesuit Code of Liberal Education, Milwaukee, 1938; E. A. Fitzpatrick, St. Ignatius and the Ratio Studiorum, New York, 1933 ; T. Hughes, Loyola and the Educational System of the Jesuits, London, 1892 ; G. M. Pachtler, Ratio Studiorum et Institutiones Societatis Jesu, Berlin, 1887. KNOX, J. : First Book of Discipline in Works, ii, edited by David Laing, Edinburgh, 1846-1864, LUTHER, M.: F. V. N. Painter, Luther on Education^ Philadelphia, 1889. MELANCHTHONJ P.: K. Hartfelder, Melanchthoniana Pcedagogica, Leipzig, 1892, and Melanchthon ah Preceptor Germanics, Berlin, 1889 ; J. W. Richard, Philip Melanchthon, the Preceptor of Germany, New York, 1898. See also General Bibliography, IV.